Biodegradation of Pesticides
We have a dedicated site for Germany. When first developed, chlorinated pesticides such as DDT, dieldrin, and mirex were received with open arms, quickly becoming popular as effective, economic agents against pests. But evidence began to mount that residues of these chemicals remained in the environment, not breaking down, often appearing in plants and animals. By the late seventies many pesticides had achieved a terrible notoriety and were subsequently banned in a number of countries.
Of tremendous concern, then, is the persistence of pesticides in the environment.
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The major thrust of research and development in the area of pesticides has properly been the creation of substances that are both effective and degradable. Yet in order to successfully promote the use of biodegradable pesticides, one must fully understand the mechanism of degradation, and it is to this vital subject that we address ourselves in the present volume. Phase II reactions are conjugation reactions and involve the covalent linkage of the toxin or phase I product to a polar compound. In general, conjugated products are ionic, polar, less lipid soluble, less toxic and easily excretable from body.
All reactions of pesticide metabolism are described using chemical structure with possible target sites and enzyme involved. Pesticides are either natural or synthetic and are applied to target pests in a myriad of Singh Abstract In this chapter pesticide metabolism has been described. Affiliation: Delhi, India. Investigations will in particular address the significance of interfaces in the subsurface which may demonstrate hot-spots for microbial degradation.
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- Water movement and fate of pesticides in the unsaturated zone linked to biodegradation processes!
In Wielenbach, LfU carries out experiments using four lysimeters filled with different soils and planted with maize, where pesticides are applied. Aims of our project are to improve the understanding of processes related to pesticide leaching and fate, which could also support decision making towards an improved lower-impact agricultural practice and a sustainable protection of groundwater for drinking water safety.